This is one of the great misconceptions of history. So Western Europeans were very late to the party. The Muslim slave trade went on for 1,400 years. The Christian slave trade went on for a few hundred years. They were late to the party. They took very few of the slaves, as we shall see. They treated their slaves far better than what occurred in the Muslim countries, as we shall also see. So Europeans ended up fighting against slavery. Europeans ended slavery. So, of course, you only hear Europeans being blamed for slavery. This is horribly unjust.But what really separates Molyneux’s video from your garden variety apologia is that he views slavery through the lens of ”anarcho”-capitalist ideology.
The Atlantic Slave Trade was not a result of market forces. It was developed under the power of the state… Slavery wasn’t economically efficient or driven by the free marketHe even goes so far as to argue that were it not for the pernicious meddling of the state, the Hidden Hand of the market could very well have smashed the chains of slavery.
With yet another economic crisis on its hands, the French government took a desperate, unprecedented step. In defiance of mercantilist ideas, it deregulated the slave trade. For the first time, the monarchy allowed private firms to send slave ships to Africa and on to the Americas.The French deregulation of the slave trade was cited in a campaign against the monopoly of the French East India Company spearheaded by French economist Andre Morellet, the protégé of Vincent de Gournay, who coined the term laissez-faire.
There would be no new state monopoly company to control the French slave trade. From a business perspective, the result was a wild success. Private traders sent increasing numbers of slaves to France’s colonies of Martinique, Guadeloupe and Saint-Domingue (now Haiti). At the beginning of the 18th century, a few thousand slaves were brought to the French Caribbean each year. By the end of the 18th century, more than a 100,000 slaves were taken there annually.
This economic boom was a human tragedy. Slavery was brutal everywhere in the Americas, but slavery in France’s sugar plantations might have been the most brutal of all. Many enslaved Africans died before reaching the Caribbean colonies and, once they arrived, their average life expectancy was less than five years. They were simply worked to death. It was no accident that Saint-Domingue, the largest French colony, would be the scene of the most important and most violent slave revolt in the history of the Americas.
Morellet insisted that state enterprises in general should be abolished, and cited the success of French slave traders after 1720 as proof of the superiority of laissez-faire over mercantilism. To those who felt that the deregulation of France’s trade with Asia was too risky, he answered: “This pretext is always relied on in the creation of monopoly Companies, and notably in the trade in Negroes on the African coast … However since then it has been observed that this competition, far from destroying commerce, sustained it. The French colonies in America had remained, until then , in a state of great weakness; liberty revived them.” Liberty, of course, meant in this case the expansion of the slave trade. Colonial slavery was a force for economic freedom.Interestingly, Morellet, in true libertarian fashion, also argued that naked self-interest was the great equalizer.
Indeed, the slave trade proved that Africans and Europeans were, at least in economic terms, exactly alike, hardly different after all: “the truth is that, on the subject of trade, people… act in the same way, because they are all guided by the same principle, that is to say, by interest.” Morellet reasoned that the slave trade proved Africans were equal to Europeans. Self-interest motivated both groups to sell or purchase enslaved people.
When you force someone to hand over 100 percent of their earnings, that’s pure slavery. What percentage of your earnings are forced over at the hands of the state? We really haven’t fundamentally outgrown it as an institution. We’ve become free range serfs or slaves. We can choose our own occupations but we must still remit property taxes and income taxes and all forms of taxation to the state in order to secure our freedom.Then he repeats his thesis that slavery isn’t real capitalism
And we’ve also thought that it has something to do with the free market so we think our enemies are racial and our enemy is the free market. Well it is not a racial institution and it was the complete opposite of the free market. It was a central, fascistically controlled pseudo market. It’s called “crapitalism”—crony capitalism—where you use the power of the state to benefit financial interests. That’s not a free market at all.And then he reminds us that the real victim of American slavery was, of course, property rights
Forcing people to not do what they want with their own property. If slaves are property, you should be able to set them free, right? Banning people from setting their slaves free is not even treating slaves as property.Finally, he hammers home his point by denying the racial character of American slavery one more time and once again listing taxpayers among the enslaved people of history.
Well the facilitation of slavery—the violent power of the state which made slavery possible and sustained its continuance—was imposed upon both whites and blacks and mulattoes and Chinese and Irish and you name it. It was imposed upon them against their will just as the national debt is imposed on your children against their will just as the bank bailouts are imposed on you against your willI just want to end by saying it doesn’t matter how gung ho you are about capitalism. Even if you’re the Second Coming of Ayn Rand, you can’t deny that the profit motive was core to the entire enterprise of slavery. Slaves were used because the market couldn’t allocate enough labor to sustain the massive transcontinental enterprise that was colonialism. To the extent that free labor could be drawn to the New World, it posed logistical problems for colonial management because there was an ever-present threat of revolt by free laborers.
[Letter sent February 10, 2020. It was shortly after this that congressional insider trading began, and global economy was placed on full "coronavirus" lockdown (in clear violation of Fourth Geneva Convention, which prohibits collective punishment of civilians in wartime). I publish it now, (4/20/2020) so as to avert any further actions by financial terrorists, intended to cripple our communities.] Dear ———, I feel that I owe you an explanation for the series of foreseeable events that are coming our way. I lost my job in July, and I take full responsibility for that. My performance of basic duties was adequate, to my thinking, but uninspired. My termination came as no great surprise to myself, or to anyone else. The duality of my function in the world is now becoming problematic. For years I have been presenting a very specific critique of military-industrial capitalism, positing that none of the serious problems that we now face (i. e. environmental degradation, spiritual degradation, poverty) can be coherently addressed, unless we are able to question some fundamental premises of American militarism; and I argue, further, that the best way to remediate this oppressive system is to focus on the demonstrably false narrative of September 11, 2001, beginning with evidence of advance incendiaries in World Trade Center dust. These views are widely held, of course, and there is nothing especially revolutionary in their most basic statement. What sets my work apart is its volume and breadth, its ubiquity, the extent to which it has been suppressed, and the multiplicity of reasons for its suppression. The work exists in a small corner of the internet, easy for anyone to overlook, who is not necessarily looking, yet still relatively easy to find, for anyone who actively seeks. I go to great lengths to bring the work to the attention of as many people as possible, not only for want of friends and compatriots, but in the earnest belief that in this work I am serving God, (which, in conversation, I would be much more inclined to refer to as "the greater good") working to bridge enormous divides between peoples. Contained within the following paypal mission statement are links to the main body of the work: https://www.paypal.com/pools/c/8lVTi6EIcF I have made attempts at electronic fund-raising on several occasions, in the hope of merely supplementing my basic income, in some small way. It is only in this latest incarnation of the fundraiser that I am putting forth a product I would deem worthy of wide attention, and which I can positively guarantee to be reaching swaths of humanity so wide and disparate as to mathematically preclude the possibility of not one single person, in the entire world, wanting to help me by sending a dollar. Though I have hesitated to make direct mention of this elsewhere, I worry that in the present state of affairs, my networks are being monitored by bad actors, and that those who attempt to help me, may expose themselves to a broad range of potential risks and difficulties. On September 11, 2017, I threw nanothermite sign over the White House fence, spent the night in jail. One month later, ——— was lured out of his solitary dwelling in ———, in the dead of night, and executed. Though nearly impossible to establish any direct link between these facts, I cannot but to harbor deepest suspicions. Needless to say, this circumstance has been the source of untold pain and stress in our household. These risks, moreover, I clearly perceived from the very inception of my work in this field. I saw before me the prospect of waging war discreetly and covertly, under the steady gaze of the all-seeing terror machine, and could easily envision the ways in which said state would pose risk to my person and my reputation. In view of these considerations, I decided that the best way to mitigate this risk was to proceed loudly and visibly, thereby involving as many people as possible, and spreading the risk to its present state of marginal existence, virtual nonexistence here in our fine Commonwealth. I would urge you think along the same lines, and to pass this letter along the chain of command as quickly as possible. Since the paypal account is linked to my checking account at ——— Bank, I believe it would be very much in your bank's interest to investigate the routing of these funds. I try to be mindful of world events, and feel myself uniquely positioned to glean their underlying and esoteric import. My firm belief is that we find ourselves presently at the very heart of that great cosmic struggle outlined in ancient chronicles, for which so many ancient teachings were handed down at the dawn, (and paradoxically, the apex as well) of human civilization, so that we might approach coming crises calmly and intelligently. I do not feel, at present, that my time is best spent driving on icy roads, to jobs at which my presence is negligible and superfluous, to generate revenue for the funding of a military state which weaponizes information in such a way as to nullify the good work that I am trying to do in the world, to render it unintelligible to the deliberately misguided layman, or otherwise to leave people's perception of both message and messenger so polluted, that the whole world ends up a toxic swamp. Though this outcome is, to a certain extent, inevitable, there are ways and teachings which allow us to mitigate its most harmful aspects. Universal abolition of the death penalty would be the best place to start. If we take literally the violent vengeance of our God, do we then also take literally the story that Joshua circumcised an entire army with flint knives? We need not act out these elaborate pantomimes in reality. The criminal justice system, when it is allowed to work universally and impartially, without any too great emphasis on harsh punishment, allows for the peaceful resolution of almost any problem. Returning to our more immediate circumstance, I would first like to ask, what is the standard procedure in a case such as this, of financial spiral toward effective zero? It would be of great value to me if you could walk me through the steps, in broad outline. Second, I would ask that, if there is a prosecution stage in the proceedings, we might get on to it as quickly as possible, so as to spare ourselves the pretense of balancing the budget in present circumstances, and third, that you might forward this letter to any interested officers of the state. In considering this case, I would ask the officers of the bank, and of the state, to think on the enormous expenditure of human lives, human energy, material resources, in the maintenance of that machine which prevents help from ever reaching me, and others of similar persuasion. And corollary to the active denial system, which keeps me, and other well-meaning people, in this state of artificial poverty, let us consider the vast (bordering on unlimited) resources devoted to active misdirection and propaganda. I would ask you to consider similar cases you have witnessed, of friends and neighbors, war veterans both literally and figuratively, whose solidarity in this outwardly hopeless (though inwardly and eternally victorious) struggle, has contributed to the sad conclusion of their viability, if not their very lives. The enormity of the case, and the set of conclusions to which the whole body of evidence clearly points, ensures that there will always be a significant minority, if not already a majority, of global citizens, who espouse a similar set of beliefs, which, in the present state of affairs, will lead to their voices being unfairly and systematically suppressed, their networks of family and friendship systematically undermined, their prospects systematically blighted——for what? Intended and unintended effects of the present anti-truth starvation policy, more broadly, will be steady and pervasive at best, violent and uncontrollable at worst, but in any case inevitable. It is in everyone's best interest to get this process over as quickly as possible. In this time of great difficulty I ask your patience and forbearance, and I hope that through all of it, you come to share my faith in the inevitability of our one day realizing the best outcomes. Sincerely, Marley Engvall
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Margin vs markup. The difference between gross margin and markup is small but important. The former is the ratio of profit to the sale price and the latter is the ratio of profit to the purchase price (Cost of Goods Sold). In layman's terms, profit is also known as either markup or margin when we're dealing with raw numbers, not percentages. Bluebelt Margin Trading Conditions. Symbol Description Contract Type Contract Size Digit Minimum/Maximum Lot Margin ratio (1/leverage) Leverage Swap long/shot Expiration Margin Call Stop out Fee Trading hour (GMT+9) BTCUSD: Bitcoin vs US Dollar: Spot: 1: 2: 0.01/20: 0.15: 6.67-10/-10: No: 50%: 30%: 0.40%: 24/7: ETHUSD: Etherium vs US Dollar Margin trading is a double-edged sword - it cuts both ways. If the stock price rises , the investor makes twice as much profit as with his own cash only. Similarly, if the stock price falls, the investor loses twice the amount. The use of the margin in Forex trading is quite common for many users, but at the same time there is a great confusion about the term. The margin is nothing else than a deposit made by a merchant and that fulfills the role of a guarantee that keeps a position open. Often, the margin is confused with a fee for a merchant, but it is not, the Marginal trading: CFD's offer marginal trading, which means a trader has to deposit only a fraction of the total position value. Let's assume you have a short or long CFD position of $1,000. In case the broker margin requirement is 4%, you will need to deposit only $40 to open such a position.
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